Edmund McKinney, missionary in charge of Spencer Academy, describes a
conflict over his hiring of a “free man of color,” Oliver Ingles, and his
family from Fort Smith, Arkansas, “at very high wages.” According to
McKinney, as soon as Choctaw leader Peter Pitchlynn found out about the
hiring, he demanded that the man be dismissed from Spencer Academy based on a
law in the Choctaw Constitution that forbid free people from residing in the
Nation. If Ingles refused to leave, he and his family would be arrested by
the light-horsemen force (equivalent to the police in the Choctaw Nation) and
sold into enslavement for a year.
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McKinney, Edmund. (author)
Lowrie, Walter, 1784-1868., Pitchlynn, Peter Perkins, 1806-1881., Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma.
Choctaw Indians--Missions--19th century., Presbyterian Church--Missions--United States.